Indonesia

Member Organizations

Member Organization Associate

  Ikatan Akuntan Indonesia
  Institut Akuntan Publik Indonesia

Legal and Regulatory Environment

  • Overview of Statuatory Framework for Accounting and Auditing

    The Limited Liability Company Law No. 40 of 2007 ,the Capital Market Act No. 8 of 1995, and the Public Accountants Act No. 5 of 2011 establishes the financial reporting framework in Indonesia.

    Accounting Framework

    In accordance the Companies Law and the Capital Market Act, all companies must prepare annual financial statements following the financial reporting requirements established by the Indonesian Financial Accounting Standards Board (Dewan Standar Akuntansi Keuangan – DSAK-IAI). The DSAK-IAI, under the Institute of Indonesia Chartered Accountants (Ikatan Akuntan Indonesia – IAI), is the independent national accounting standard-setting body that establishes the Indonesian Financial Accounting Standards (Standar Akuntansi Keuangan – SAK) based on IFRS. The DSAK-IAI has adopted SAK, which are based on the latest IFRS with adjustments to the effective date, for all listed companies and other entities with significant public accountability, and SAK ETAP, which are based on IFRS for SMEs, for entities without public accountability (expected to be superseded by the SAK PE for private entities). The IFRS Foundation and the DSAK-IAI note that the SAK does not incorporate all the requirements of IFRS. However, DSAK-IAI is currently developing the SAK I (SAK Internasional), a new reporting framework adopted word-for-word from IFRS. The framework will be available for entities that meet the requirements set by relevant regulators in Indonesia, for example the Financial Services Authority (Otoritas Jasa Keuangan – OJK).

    Under the Capital Market Law and the Banking Law, OJK establishes financial reporting requirements for entities under its supervision — banks, listed companies, insurance companies, and financial institutions — and mandates the use of DSAK-IAI accounting standards.

    Auditing Framework

    • The Companies Law and the Capital Market Law requires all companies to prepare annual audited financial statements. The Public Accountants Act empowers the Indonesian Institute of Certified Public Accountants (Institut Akuntan Publik Indonesia – IAPI) as audit standard-setter. IAPI’s Audit Standards Committee issues the Indonesian Public Accountant Professional Standards (Standar Profesional Akuntan Publik - SPAP), which are based on the 2016–2017 ISA.
  • Regulation of Accountancy Profession

    Professional accountants in Indonesia are regulated at the state level by the Minister of Finance (MoF) Decree No. 216/PMK.01/2017 and the Public Accountants Act No. 5 of 2011 and are self-regulated by the mandatory membership in one of Indonesia’s professional accountancy organizations (PAOs): Institute of Indonesia Chartered Accountants (Ikatan Akuntan Indonesia – IAI) which regulates Chartered Accountants (CA) and Indonesian Institute of Certified Public Accountants (Institut Akuntan Publik Indonesia – IAPI) which regulates Public Accountants (Auditors). Management accountants may also voluntarily join the Indonesian Institute of Management Accountants (IAMI).

    Chartered Accountants

    Together with the Ministry of Higher Education, the MoF and IAI shared responsibility for setting initial and continuing professional development (IPD and CPD, respectively) requirements for CAs.

    There are two pathways to becoming a CA in Indonesia. Under the Ministry of Higher Education Decree No. 153 of 2014 on the Professional Accountancy Education Program, individuals aspiring to be a CA are required to: (i) complete a bachelor’s degree in accounting; (ii) successfully complete the IAI Professional Accounting Education Program (Pendidikan Profesi Akuntan – PPAk) from an accredited university and pass the IAI exam; and (iii) register with the MoF in the state registered accountant title (Register Negara Akuntan – Ak).

    In the second path, individuals must complete and pass the CA qualification, which is overseen by IAI. The CA examination comprises seven separate examinations, which candidates must complete over a maximum period of 3 years.

    To be a registered accountant by the MoF, an individual must pass either the PPAk or CA qualification, have at least three years of practical experience, and be a member of IAI.

    The law grants IAI with authority for (i) setting and implementing IPD and CPD requirements for its members; (ii) issuing and monitoring a code of professional conduct for its members; (iii) establishing an investigative and disciplinary (I&D) system for all CAs; (iv) supporting the Indonesian Financial Accounting Standards Board (Dewan Standar Akuntansi Keuangan – DSAK-IAI) as independent national accounting standard-setting body in Indonesia; and (v) promoting the development of the accounting profession in Indonesia.

    Management Accountants

    Management accountants may voluntarily join the Indonesian Institute of Management Accountants (Institut Akuntan Manajemen Indonesia – IAMI) and become subject to its requirements.

    Public Accountants (Auditors)

    Public Accountants (Auditors) in Indonesia are subject to a multi-layer system of supervision, with each responsible party responsible for regulating segments of professionals.

    The MoF and the IAPI share responsibility for setting IPD and CPD requirements for Public Accountants (Auditors) in accordance the Public Accountant Act No. 5 of 2011. Individuals aspiring to be Public Accountants (Auditor) are required to: (i) complete a recognized bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, or doctorate in accounting; (ii) complete an initial examination to become an “Associate CPA”; (iii) complete the professional level examinations to achieve the “CPA - Not Practicing” status; (iv) demonstrate three years of practical experience before becoming eligible to take the final comprehensive examination; (v) pass the final examination to achieve “full CPA” status; and (vi) register with the MoF. IAPI does not offer preparation courses for examinations and is responsible for Public Accountants (Auditors) examinations.

    The Public Accountant Act also outlines the requirements for foreign public accountants to become licensed in Indonesia, provided there is mutual recognition agreement (MoU) between the government of Indonesia and the foreign public accountant’s country of origin. There are MoU signed with the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW), the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA), CPA Australia, and the Association of International Certified Professional Accountants–CIMA.

    The Public Accountant Act empowers IAPI as a regulator of Public Accountants (Auditors). Its responsibilities include (i) implementing and setting IPD and CPD requirements for its members; (ii) issuing audit standards to be applied by auditors; (iii) issuing and monitoring a code of professional conduct for its members; (iv) establishing an I&D for its members; and (v) establishing a quality assurance (QA) review system for its members.

    Additionally, the Finance Professions Supervisory Center (Pusat Pembinaan Profesi Keuangan – PPPK), under the MoF, was established by MoF Decree No. 100 of 2008 as independent audit oversight authority. Its responsibilities included in the Public Accountant Act and MoF Decree No. 154/PMK.01/2017, are (i) issuing practicing licenses to individual auditors and audit firms; (ii) establishing a QA review system for Public Accountants (Auditors) and firms; (iii) establishing an I&D for Public Accountants (Auditors); and (iv) setting other regulation for Public Accountants (Auditors) and firms, such as rules on auditor rotation.

    Furthermore, OJK in accordance with the Capital Market Act No. 8 of 1995 also has regulatory powers over Public Accountants (Auditors) that provide services to companies under its supervision —banks, listed companies, insurance companies, and financial institutions. Accordingly, OJK is empowered to establish the following processes applicable to Public Accountants (Auditors) and Firms providing services to regulated companies (i) maintain a register; (ii) establish an I&D system, and (iii) establish a QA review system. Additionally, under State Finance Law No. 17 of 2003 and Supreme Audit Board (Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan – BPK) Regulation No. 1 of 2008, the BPK is given the authority to review audit engagement work conducted by IAPI members on public sector entities.

  • Audit Oversight Arrangements

    In accordance with MoF Decree No. 100 of 2008, The Pusat Pembinaan Profesi Keuangan/Center for Supervision of Financial Service (PPPK) an organization under the MoF, is the independent audit oversight authority in Indonesia and is responsible for the supervision of the accountancy profession in Indonesia, including monitoring the professional activity of statutory auditors. the PPPK’s responsibilities are set out in the Public Accountants Act No.5 of 2011. They include issuing practicing licenses to individual auditors and audit firms; establishing the requirements to obtain and maintain the practicing license; setting continuing professional development requirements for auditors; setting rules on auditor rotation; and the investigation and discipline of individual auditors and audit firms. The Public Accountants Act also authorizes the PPPK to conduct inspections of the audit work of all auditors and audit firms. The scope of inspection includes ensuring licensing requirements are fulfilled and that firms maintain relevant quality control systems. The PPPK is a member of the International Forum of Independent Audit Regulators (IFIAR) and the ASEAN Audit Regulators Group and is recognized by the European Commission (EC) and Swiss Federal Audit Oversight Authority (FAOA) as having an audit oversight system compatible with the requirements in the European Union and Switzerland.

  • Professional Accountancy Organizations

    There are three national professional accountancy organizations operating in Indonesia:

    Ikatan Akuntan Indonesia/Institute of Indonesia Chartered Accountants (IAI)

    The IAI is responsible for the regulation of professional accountants, including setting accounting standards in the private sector, administering the Chartered Accountant Indonesia exam, providing continuing professional education, establishing a code of ethics, adopting professional standards, and maintaining a disciplinary system for members. IAI membership comprises accountants from all accounting backgrounds, including public accountants/auditors, management accountants, tax accountants, internal auditors, academics and public sector accountants. Prior to 2014, membership in the IAI was voluntary; however, in 2014, the Minister of Finance Decree No. 25 of 2014 (PMK) on State Registered Accountants introduced the requirement for accountants to become a member of a professional organization prior to their registration with the Minister of Finance. This requirement has strengthened the standing of the IAI in the profession. In addition to being a member of IFAC, IAI is a member of the ASEAN Federation of Accountants.

    Institut Akuntan Manajemen Indonesia/Indonesian Institute of Management Accountants (IAMI)

    The IAMI is a professional organization of management accountants uniting 200 accountants employed as executives in the public and private sectors. Previously, the IAMI was a part of the IAI, until it elected to be an independent organization in 2007.

    Institut Akuntan Publik Indonesia/Indonesian Institute of Certified Public Accountants (IAPI)

    The IAPI regulates public accountants and is legally empowered to set auditing and ethical standards for the public accountancy profession. The IAPI is also responsible for administering the Certified Public Accountants exam and for setting ethical requirements for public accountants. Membership with the IAPI is mandatory for all public accountants. The IAPI was once a part of the IAI, first as a department, then as an association member between 2007 and 2012. In 2012, the IAI eliminated association membership and, as consequence, the IAPI’s membership with the IAI ended and the IAPI became an independent organization. In addition to being an IFAC Member, IAPI is also a member of the ASEAN Federation of Accountants.

  • Projects or Other Information

    There is no information on ongoing projects.

Adoption of International Standards

  • Quality Assurance

    Public Accountants (Auditors) in Indonesia are subject to a multi-layer system of supervision, with each responsible party conducting quality assurance (QA) reviews of auditors.

    The Public Accountants Law No. 5 of 2011 requires the establishment of a mandatory QA review system for all audits in Indonesia. In accordance with the Act, the Pusat Pembinaan Profesi Keuangan/Center for Supervision of Financial Service (PPPK), under the MoF, and Indonesian Institute of Certified Public Accountants (Institut Akuntan Publik Indonesia – IAPI) are responsible for establishing a QA review system for Public Accountants and firms. All three have established QA review systems. ISQC 1 is adopted in Indonesia.

    The OJK in accordance the Capital Market Law No. 8 of 1995 is also empowered to establish a QA system for Public Accountants (Auditors) providing services to companies under its supervision— banks, listed companies, insurance companies, and financial institutions.

    Additionally, under State Finance Law No. 17 of 2003 and BPK Regulation No. 1 of 2008, the BPK is given the authority to review audit engagement work conducted by IAPI members.

    PPPK priority of inspections are auditors of PIEs—listed companies and financial institutions—although PPPK also conducts inspection on other audit firms. According to the PPPK, it inspects Big-10 firms annually, second-tier firms biannually and other firms at least once in four or five years.

    IAPI reports that its QA system is developed in line with the requirements of SMO 1 and covers its entire membership base (those who provide assurance and non-assurance services). IAPI reports that the QA system by the PPPK is also developed in line with SMO 1 requirements. It is unclear if the BPK’s or OJK’s systems are in line with SMO 1 requirements.

    As there are overlaps in the respective responsibilities of different agencies who are involved in QA reviews of auditors in the jurisdiction, there are discussions underway to develop a three-party QA review system implemented by the IAPI, the PPPK, and OJK. Discussions around the joint QA review system have continued in early 2021 and it is expected that the OJK, PPPK, and IAPI will finalize a trial joint-review process to commence in 2022.

    Current Status: Partially Adopted

  • International Education Standards

    In Indonesia, the Ministry of Higher Education, Ministry of Finance (MoF), Ikatan Akuntan Indonesia/Institute of Indonesia Chartered Accountants (IAI), and Institut Akuntan Publik Indonesia/Indonesian Institute of Certified Public Accountants (IAPI) have a role in implementing IPD and CPD requirements for professional accountants.

    Under MoF Decree No. 25 of 2014, and with the approval of the Ministry of Higher Education, the IAI is responsible for setting IPD requirements for accountants, including developing the Professional Accountancy Education Program (PPAk), a program that is to be completed by all individuals who wish to enter the profession.

    In addition, the IAI has developed the Standar Pendidikan Akuntansi Indonesia/Indonesian Accounting Education Standards, with the support of the World Bank. These standards are to be used when developing accounting education programs.

    The Public Accountants Act of 2011 and MoF Regulation No. 17 of 2008 set forth the requirements for becoming a registered public accountant. This process includes completing the PPAk, and passing the Indonesia CPA examination administered by the IAPI.

    Both IAI and IAPI report that the IES are incorporated into the educational programs in Indonesia for all professional accountants. IAPI reports that the latest 2021 IES are incorporated in Indonesia.

    Current Status: Adopted

  • International Standards on Auditing

    Under the Public Accountants Law of 2011, the Institut Akuntan Publik Indonesia/Indonesian Institute of Certified Public Accountants (IAPI) has direct responsibility for setting auditing standards in Indonesia and has adopted the Indonesian Public Accountant Professional Standards (SPAPs), which are based on the 2016–2017 ISA. IAPI reports that it is in the process of reviewing the 2018 ISA for adoption. These updates will be effective to be applied in 2022. ISAs are translated into Bahasa Indonesia.

    Current Status: Partially Adopted

  • Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants

    The Ikatan Akuntan Indonesia/Institute of Indonesia Chartered Accountants (IAI) and the Institut Akuntan Publik Indonesia/Indonesian Institute of Certified Public Accountants (IAPI) are responsible for setting ethical requirements for their members, in accordance with the Minister of Finance Decree No. 216/PMK.01/2017, and the Public Accountants Act No. 5 of 2011.

    IAI, IAPI, and IAMI as the three recognized PAOs in Indonesia have published a joint Code of Ethics for all professional accountants in Indonesia called the Kode Etik Akuntan Indonesia. This Code is aligned with the 2018 International Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants and is effective July 1, 2020.

    Current Status: Adopted

  • International Public Sector Accounting Standards

    The Government Accounting Standard Committee (KSAP), established under Minister of Finance Decree No. 379 of 2004, is responsible for setting Public Sector Accounting Standards in Indonesia. The KSAP is an independent committee comprising representatives from the Ikatan Akuntan Indonesia/Institute of Indonesia Chartered Accountants, academia, and government practitioners, among others. The KSAP uses IPSASs as the main reference when drafting national public sector accounting standards; however, modifications are made to allow for the differences in Indonesia’s legal and regulatory environment. As of 2015, Indonesian public sector accounting standards are defined as full accrual standards.

    Current Status: Partially Adopted

  • Investigation and Discipline

    Professional accountants, Chartered Accountant (CA) and Public Accountants (Auditors), are subject to a multi-layer system of supervision, with each responsible party conducting investigative and disciplinary (I&D) processes of professionals. The investigation and discipline (I&D) of accountancy professionals in Indonesia is shared between the Pusat Pembinaan Profesi Keuangan/Center for Supervision of Financial Service Professions of the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia (PPPK), Otoritas Jasa Keuangan/Financial Service Authority (OJK), Ikatan Akuntan Indonesia/Institute of Indonesia Chartered Accountants (IAI), and the Institut Akuntan Publik Indonesia/Indonesian Institute of Certified Public Accountants (IAPI).

    In accordance with the MoF Decree No. 216/PMK.01/2017 the IAI has established I&D mechanisms for its members. The IAPI, empowered by the Public Accountants Act No. 5 of 2011, also established an I&D system for its members. Disciplinary actions can lead to written warnings, membership suspension, or revocation of membership depending on the severity of the offense. Both systems are aligned with the requirements of SMO 6.

    The PPPK and OJK are authorized to conduct I&D for professional accountants providing services to entities under its supervision — banks, listed companies, insurance companies, and financial institutions. Their responsibilities include the capacity for issuing warnings and imposing fines and penalties. They work with both the IAI and IAPI to minimize the potential overlap in services provided by public accountants who provide both assurance (IAPI members) and non-assurance services (IAI members). It is not clear whether the PPPK and OJK I&D systems incorporate all the requirements of the SMO 6.

    Current Status: Partially Adopted

  • International Financial Reporting Standards

    In accordance with the Limited Liability Company Law No. 40 of 2007, the Capital Market Law No. 8 of 1995, all companies must prepare annual financial statements following the financial reporting requirements established by the Indonesian Financial Accounting Standard Board DSAK-IAI. The DSAK-IAI, under Ikatan Akuntan Indonesia/Institute of Indonesia Chartered Accountants IAI, is the independent national accounting standard-setting body that establishes the Indonesian Financial Accounting Standards (Standar Akuntansi Keuangan – SAK) based on IFRS. The DSAK-IAI has adopted SAK, which are based on the 2017 IFRS, for all listed companies and other entities with significant public accountability, and SAK ETAP, which are based on IFRS for SMEs, for entities without public accountability (expected to be superseded by the SAK PE for private entities).

    The IFRS Foundation and the DSAK-IAI note that the SAK does not incorporate all the requirements of IFRS. As of 2021, DSAK-IAI is in the process of developing the Indonesian International Financial Accounting Standards (SAK Internasional – SAK I), a new reporting framework adopted word-for-word from IFRS. The framework will be available for entities that meet the requirements set by relevant regulators such as the OJK. Under the Capital Market Law and the Banking Law, the OJK establishes financial reporting requirements for entities under its supervision — banks, listed companies, insurance companies, and financial institutions — and mandates the use of DSAK-IAI accounting standards.

    Current Status: Partially Adopted

Disclaimer

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Methodology

Methodology
Last updated: 12/2021
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